Who are the Sideeqoon (The Truthful Ones)

The highest status after that of the Prophets is the status of the siddeeqoon; those who attain this status are the siddeeqoon.

Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “And whoso obeys Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)), then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His Grace, of the Prophets, the Siddeeqoon (those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them, like Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq), the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!” [an-Nisa’ 4:69]

“And those who believe in (the Oneness of) Allah and His Messengers, they are the Siddeeqoon (i.e. those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them), and the martyrs with their Lord, they shall have their reward and their light” [al-Hadeed 57:19]

Al-Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Tafseer al-Qurtubi (5/272) :

The word siddeeq is a grammatically intensive form which indicates a high level of belief. The siddeeq is the one who confirms with his actions what he says with his tongue. And it was said that they (the siddeeqoon) are the best of the followers of the Prophets who were the first of them to believe, such as Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq.

As-Sa‘di (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Tafseer as-Sa‘di (p. 841) :

The siddeeqoon are those who reached the highest levels of faith, righteous deeds, beneficial knowledge and true certainty.

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Madaarij as-Saalikeen (2/258) :

The highest level of sincerity is that of the siddeeq; it is perfect submission to the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), accompanied by perfect sincerity towards the One Who sent him.

 

Enjoining good and forbidding evil even if you sin?

Undoubtedly the one who enjoins what is right and forbids what is wrong should be complying with what he enjoins and avoiding what he forbids. However, the view of the majority of scholars among the earlier and later generations is that it is not stipulated that the one who wants to enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong should be of exemplary conduct and never commit any wrong deeds or sins, because this condition would close the door to enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong.

al-Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) said in  Tafseer al-Qurtubi (1/366) on his commentary on the verse in which Allah, may He be exalted, says, Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and each and every act of obedience to Allah) on the people and you forget (to practise it) yourselves?” [al-Baqarah 2:44],

“It should be understood that the rebuke in this verse has to do with failing to do deeds of piety, righteousness and obedience to Allah; it does not have to do with enjoining such deeds.”

Abu Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi said in Ahkaam al-Qur’an (1/349)  regarding this verse: Rather the criticism in this case is for committing that which he was forbidden to do, not for forbidding what is wrong.

 

 

Al-Qaadi Abu Ya‘la said in his essay al-Amr bi’l-Ma‘roof (p. 47): “It is more appropriate for the one who seeks to enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong to be one of the people of discretion, decency, and good character, and one who is accepted and well-liked by people, because if he meets this description, the one whom he enjoins will have respect for him and may respond to him and accept what he says… When a person is like this, his words are more likely to have an impact and be accepted.”

Abu Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi said in Ahkaam al-Qur’an (1/349): “It is not stipulated that he should be of exemplary conduct according to Ahl as-Sunnah, but the innovators said that no one can change wrong actions except one who is of exemplary conduct. This is wrong, because truly exemplary conduct is limited to very few people, but forbidding what is wrong is something that is required of all people.”

 

An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Saheeh Muslim (2/23) : “The scholars said: With regard to enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, it is not stipulated that one must be perfect, complying fully with what he enjoins and avoiding fully what he forbids; rather he must enjoin what is right, even if he is falling short in what he enjoins, and he must forbid what is wrong, even if he does some of that which he forbids.

So two things are required of him: to enjoin himself to do what is right and to forbid himself to do what is wrong, and to enjoin others to do what is right and forbid them to do what is wrong. If he falls short in one of them, how can it be permissible for him to fall short in the other?!”

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari (13/53): “With regard to the one who says that no one should enjoin what is right except one who is free of all faults, if he means that this is what is preferable, all well and good, otherwise it implies closing the door to enjoining what is good, if there is no one else who can meet that condition.”

It was said to al-Hasan al-Basri: So and so does not admonish the people and he says: I am afraid to say what I do not do. Al-Hasan said: Which of us does what he says? That is what the Shaytaan wants people to think, then no one would enjoin anything that is right or forbid anything that is wrong. [Ghidha’ al-Albaab fi Sharh Manzoomat al-Adaab (1/215)]

 

 

 

Tafseer of the verse: “So stand firm and straight as you are commanded…”

Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, said to His Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him):

“So stand firm and straight (on the religion of Islamic Monotheism) as you are commanded, you and those  who turn in repentance with you, and transgress not (Allah’s legal limits). Verily, He is All-Seer of what you do” [Hood 11:112]

Ibn Jareer (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Tafseer at-Tabari (15/499) :

“Here Allah, may He be exalted, says to His Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): stand firm and straight as your Lord has commanded, you and those who follow you in that, and call upon Him, as your Lord has commanded, and those who return with you to obedience to Allah and act in accordance with what their Lord has commanded, after they had disbelieved; and do not transgress against His command and do that which He has prohibited to you, for your Lord has knowledge of all the deeds that you do – both deeds of obedience and disobedience – and nothing of that is hidden from Him, for He sees all of it. So fear Allah, O people, lest your Lord look upon you when you are doing something contrary to His command, for He knows all that you do, and He is constantly watching you.”

Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Tafseer Ibn Katheer (4/354):  “Here Allah, may He be exalted, instructs His Messenger and His believing slaves to be steadfast and persist in righteousness, for that is one of the greatest means of help towards victory over one’s enemies and going against one’s opponents. And He forbids transgression, which is wrongdoing, for that is a fatal error even if it is against a mushrik. And remember that Allah, may He be exalted, sees all that people do, and He is not unaware of anything, and nothing is hidden from Him.”

Shaykh Nasir Sa’di said in Tafseer as-Sa‘di (p. 390): “This came after Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, had mentioned the situation of those who are blessed and those who are doomed, and after He, may He be exalted, had said, addressing His Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him):

“So be not in doubt (O Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)) as to what these (pagans and polytheists) men worship. They worship nothing but what their fathers worshipped before (them). And verily, We shall repay them in full their portion without diminution.

Indeed, We gave the Book to Moosa (Moses), but differences arose therein, and had it not been for a Word that had gone forth before from your Lord, the case would have been judged between them, and indeed they are in grave doubt concerning it (this Qur’an).

And verily, to each of them your Lord will repay their works in full. Surely, He is All-Aware of what they do”

[Hood 11:109-111].

Having spoken of the situation of both parties, and mentioned the disbelief of those who worshipped idols alongside Allah, and that those who differed concerning the Book became divided into factions, Allah then instructed His Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and the believers who were with him, to stand firm and straight (on the religion of Islamic Monotheism) as they were commanded, and follow the laws that Allah had prescribed, and to accept the sound beliefs of which Allah had told them, and not to deviate from that to the right or to the left, and to persist in that, and not to transgress by overstepping the limits of righteousness that Allah had set for them.”

 

Tafseer of the verse “Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days” [al-A‘raaf 7:54]

“Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty)”

[al-A‘raaf 7:54]

Ibn al-Jawzi (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Zaad al-Maseer (3/211) :

:What is meant by the words “in Six Days” is the equivalent of that, because the day is known by the rising and setting of the sun, but there was no sun at that time…”

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa (18/235) :

“Here Allah, may He be glorified, tells us that He created the heavens and the earth in six days. It is all the same whether it is said that those days were of the same length as the days that are determined by the rising and setting of the sun, or it is said that they were longer than that, as some scholars said that each day was the equivalent of a thousand years – because there can be no doubt that those days in which the heavens and the earth were created were different from these days and were different from time which is measured by the movement of these heavenly bodies. those days were measured by the movement of other bodies that existed before the creation of the heavens and the earth.”

He also said in Dar’ Ta‘aarud al-‘Aql wa’n-Naql (1/69) :

“Allah tells us that He created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six days; those days were a period of time that was measured by a movement other than the movement of the sun and moon.”

 

 

The compilation of the mushaf in one style

Regarding Uthman (radiAllaahu anhu) compiling the mushaf into one style,  Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz mentions in his Majmoo’ Fataawa (9/362)

It was proven that the Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “This Qur’aan has been revealed in seven styles, so recite whichever is easiest.” And the scholars said: they are close in meaning but different in wording.

When ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) heard of the differences among the people and Hudhayfah (may Allaah be pleased with him) came to him and said “Save the people,” he consulted the Companions who were still alive at this time, such as ‘Ali, Talhah, al-Zubayr and others, and they suggested compiling the Qur’aan in one style, so that the people would not differ. So he compiled it (may Allaah be pleased with him), and he formed a four-man committee for that task, headed by Zayd ibn Thaabit (may Allaah be pleased with him). So they compiled the Qur’aan in one style, and copied it and distributed it to the various regions so that the people could rely on it and so as to put an end to disputes.

With regard to the seven recitations or ten recitations, they are present in what was compiled by ‘Uthmaan, and have to do with adding a letter or omitting a letter, or elongating or shortening a vowel. All of that is included in the one style that ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) compiled. The intention behind that was to preserve the word of Allaah and protect people from differences that could harm them or cause fitnah among them. Allaah has not enjoined reciting it in the seven styles, rather the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “Recite whichever is easiest.” So the people’s agreeing upon one style is a good action for which ‘Uthmaan and the Companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) are to be appreciated, because it made things easier for people and prevented a cause of dispute among the Muslims. End quote.

Quraan Bearers: Nobles of this Ummah

Imam al-Jazari’s praise for the Qur’an bearer – taken from the Muqaddimah of ‘Tayyibat al-Nashr.’


وبعد: فالإنسان ليس يشرف *** إلا بما يحفظ ويعرف

A person is not honoured or raised
Except by what he knows and has memorised

لذاك كان حاملو القرآن *** أشراف الأمة أولى الإحسان

For that reason the bearers of Qur’an
Are the nobles of this Ummah and its righteous

وإنهم في الناس أهل الله *** وإن ربنا بهم يباهي

And they are the people of Allah amongst Mankind *
And indeed our Lord has boasted of them

وقال في القرآن عنهم وكفى *** بأنه أورثه من اصطفى

He spoke of them in the Qur’an, and it is sufficient
That He gives it (the Qur’an) to those He has chosen **

وهو في الأخرى شافع مشفع *** فيه وفوله عليه يسمع

And in the Hereafter, it is an ardent intercessor
And its statement is something surely heard

يعطى به الملك مع الخلد إذا *** توجه تاج الكرامة كذا

By it a person is given the dominion and immortality
And likewise, he is given the crown of honour

يقرا ويرقى درج الجنان *** وأبواه منه يكسيان

He’ll read and ascend the ranks of Paradise by it
And his parents will also be clothed by it

فاليحرص السعيد في تحصيله *** ولا يمل قط من ترتيله

So let a person strive to attain it
And let him never tire of its recitation.


____

* Due to the hadith: ‘Indeed Allah has people from amongst Mankind. The people of Qur’an, they are the people of Allah and His Specialties.’ [Ahmad, Ibn Majah]

** Due to the verse in Soorah Fatir:

ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ

“Then We gave the Book for inheritance to such of Our slaves whom We chose…” [Fatir: 32]

*** Due to the hadith: ‘The Qur’aan will meet its companion on the Day of Resurrection when his grave is opened for him, in the form of a pale man. It will say to him, ‘Do you recognize me?’ He will say: ‘I do not recognize you.’ It will say: ‘I am your companion the Qur’aan, who kept you thirsty on hot days and kept you awake at night. Every merchant benefits from his business and today you will benefit from your good deeds.’ He will be given dominion in his right hand and eternity in his left, and there will be placed on his head a crown of dignity, and his parents will be clothed with priceless garments the like of which have never been seen in this world. They will say: ‘Why have we been clothed with this?’ It will be said: ‘Because your son used to recite Qur’aan.’ Then it will be said to him: ‘Recite and ascend in the degrees of Paradise,’ and he will continue to ascend so long as he recites, either at a fast pace or a slow pace.’ [Ahmad, Ibn Majah]

Tafseer on the basis of narrated texts & tafseer on the understanding

When explaining the meanings of a verse of the Qur’an, the mufassir (scholarly commentator on the meanings) follows one of two methods:

The first method is to see whether there is anything in the texts of the Qur’an or the Prophet’s Sunnah, or in texts narrated from the righteous early generations, that explains this verse. If there is an explanation of it in these sources, he follows it and is content with it. This is what is called “tafseer on the basis of narrated texts”; it is of several types:

1.     Tafseer of the Qur’an by the Qur’an: as some parts of the Qur’an explain other parts.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Muqaddimah fi Usool at-Tafseer (p. 93):

If someone were to ask: what are the soundest ways of interpreting the meanings of the Qur’an? The answer is that the soundest way of doing that is to interpret the Qur’an by the Qur’an, because sometimes it may refer to a matter in brief, then explain it in more detail elsewhere, or it may state something in a few words in one place, then expand upon it elsewhere.=

Some examples of that:

Al-Bukhaari (4236) narrated from ‘Alqamah (may Allah have mercy on him) that ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said: When the verse “…and confuse not their belief with Zulm (wrong)…” [al-An‘aam 6:82] was revealed, his companions (i.e., the companions of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: Which of us has not done wrong? Then the verse “Verily! Joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed” [Luqmaan 31:13] was revealed. [From the latter verse it is understood that the zulm referred to in the first verse is the zulm of shirk (joining others in worship with Allah), and not any lesser wrongdoing.]

But although interpreting the Qur’an by the Qur’an may sometimes be unambiguous and clear, as in the example mentioned above, in which case it is binding proof that must be followed and not opposed, sometimes it is based on the mufassir’s own ijtihaad and understanding, when he is trying to put together similar verses. Undoubtedly this is of a lesser status than the above, because the one who engages in ijithaad may be wrong or right.

2.     The tafseer of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), explaining the meanings of the Qur’an, because he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) came to both convey and explain to us what is said in the holy Qur’an. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “With clear signs and Books (We sent the Messengers). And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) the reminder and the advice (the Quran), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought” [an-Nahl 16:44].

The interpretation of a verse may be understood from the Sunnah of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), from his actions and words, and from the things that he approved of.

The Sunnah came to explain the Qur’an. Allah, may He be exalted, has instructed us to pray, give zakaah, perform Hajj, carry out the hadd punishments and so on, and the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), through his Sunnah – his actions and words – has explained to us in detail what is meant by these words. But if the mufassir cannot find any explanation for a verse in the Sunnah, he should look at the sayings of the Sahaabah.

3.     Tafseer based on reports from the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them):

Their tafseer takes precedence over that of anyone else, because their tafseer is likely to be based on what they learned from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), as Ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said: One of us would learn ten verses then he would not move on (and learn more) until he understood their meaning and put them into practice. Narrated by at-Tabari in his Tafseer (1/80); its isnaad was classed as saheeh by Shaykh Ahmad Shaakir (may Allah have mercy on him).

In some cases the tafseer of the Sahaabah was based on their own ijtihaad and understanding, and their ijtihaad takes precedence over that of those who came after them, because they accompanied the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and were aware of the circumstances in which the verses of the Qur’an were revealed, such as the reasons for revelation and the place where revelation came down. They were contemporaries who were well aware of the reality of the circumstances in which the Qur’an was revealed and how people were at that time. Moreover, they had a greater understanding than others of the language in which the Qur’an was revealed; they had deeper knowledge, were less complicated (i.e., they were straightforward people), and the furthest removed from misguidance and error in terms of their knowledge and deeds.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said in Muqaddimah fi Usool at-Tafseer (p. 95): “Then if you do not find the explanation of the meaning in either the Qur’an or the Sunnah, you should refer to the words of the Sahaabah, because they had greater knowledge of that, because of what they witnessed of the Qur’an, and because of the advantages they had, and what they had of perfect understanding and sound knowledge, especially the scholars and leading figures among them…”

The views of the Sahaabah concerning tafseer take precedence over the views of anyone else, unless the Sahaabah differed concerning it, in which case the mufassir must try to work out which view is most correct.

4.     Tafseer based on reports from the Taabi‘een

If the mufassir does not find anything in the words of the Sahaabah to explain the meaning of the verse, then he should look at the tafseer of the Taabi‘een, who acquired their knowledge from the companions of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon them), because in their circumstances, words, deeds and time they were – naturally – closer to the Sahaabah and to their teachings and were able to learn from them directly.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Muqaddimah fi Usool at-Tafseer (p. 102): “If you do not find the explanation of the meaning in either the Qur’an or the Sunnah, and you do not find it in what is reported from the Sahaabah, in that case many of the imams (leading scholars) turned to the views of the Taabi‘een…”

He (may Allah have mercy on him) also said (p. 37):

“Among the Taabi‘een are some who learned all their tafseer from the Sahaabah, as Mujaahid said: I showed the Mushaf to Ibn ‘Abbaas, pausing at each verse and asking him about it. Hence ath-Thawri said: If the interpretation of the meaning of a verse comes to you from Mujaahid, it is sufficient for you. Hence ash-Shaafa‘i, al-Bukhaari and other scholars relied on his (Mujaahid’s) tafseer.”

If the scholars of tafseer among the Taabi‘een are agreed upon a view concerning the meaning of a verse, then undoubtedly it is obligatory to follow it. But if they differed, the view of one of them is not necessarily stronger than that of another and cannot be given precedence over another or be regarded as the ultimate proof. Rather it must be examined and his proof may be quoted or referred to, (but it is not binding proof).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Muqaddimat at-Tafseer, p. 140 :

“Undoubtedly the Taabi‘een differed, but those who learned tafseer from the Sahaabah are not equal to those who did not do so.

However, if they did not state that they learned it from a Sahaabi, then their view is not proof against those who came after them, if they differed in their views, because they are not of the same status as the Sahaabah, but their views are more likely to be closer to the truth. The closer people are to the time of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), the more likely they are to be correct than those who come after them. This is very clear, because of the prevalence of whims and desires in subsequent periods, and because of the presence of numerous intermediaries between them and the time of the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). Undoubtedly this distance detracts from the value of their opinions; hence we know that referring to the view of earlier generations is very important.”

The second method is for the mufassir who has knowledge of tafseer to use his understanding to interpret the meaning of the verse of the Qur’an, and his ijtihaad must be based on the proper method, following the guidelines and principles of tafseer. This is what is called tafseer on the basis of individual understanding and ijtihaad.

Az-Zarqaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his book Manaahil al-‘Irfaan fi ‘Uloom al-Qur’an (2/43):

With regard to the permissible type of tafseer on the basis of one’s understanding, it is essential to be aware of what has been narrated from the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and his companions that may give the mufassir some insight into how he should interpret the meaning on the basis of his understanding. The one who does that must also have extensive knowledge of the rules of the Arabic language and its styles and manner of expression, as well as deep insight into the rules of sharee‘ah, so that he will be able to interpret the words of Allah on the basis of what is well established of the rules and regulations of His sharee‘ah. End quote.

Tafseer that is based on one’s individual understanding is blameworthy in the following scenarios:

1.     When the one who is seeking to interpret the meaning is not qualified to do so, and he is trying to explain the words of Allah without knowledge. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “Say (O Muhammad blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): ‘(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawahish (great evil sins, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteous oppression, joining partners (in worship) with Allah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge’” [al-A‘raaf 7:33]; “O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth, and follow not the footsteps of Shaitan (Satan). Verily, he is to you an open enemy” [al-Baqarah 2:168-169].

2.     When he is following his own whims and desires and his aim is to support his bid‘ah (innovation) and opinion, even if that is by twisting the meanings of the words or not paying attention to the proper way of understanding, the ways in which the Arabs express different ideas in their language, and the guidelines of sharee‘ah, as some innovators among the Raafidis and others did, when they interpreted some verses in a manner that is contrary to what is indicated by the guidelines of sharee‘ah and knowledge of the Arabic language.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said Muqaddimat at-Tafseer, p. 142 :

“Interpretation of the Qur’an based on individual opinion: sometimes, in order to be in harmony with his preconceived ideas, as the followers of whims and desires do, a person may say that what is meant by a given word or phrase is such and such – saying something that is in harmony with his preconceived ideas. That includes some later scholars who interpreted the Qur’an in such a manner as to be in harmony with the latest scientific discoveries – whether astronomical or terrestrial – when the Qur’an does not indicate that. In that case they are interpreting the Qur’an on the basis of their own preconceived views, because the Qur’an does not indicate that, either on the basis of the text or of what is indicated by the language. This is their own opinion, and it is not right to interpret the Qur’an on that basis.

Similarly, if a person does not understand the linguistic meaning or the shar‘i meaning indicated by the verse, if he then says something without knowledge, he is sinning, such as if one of the common folk were to interpret the verse of the holy Qur’an according to his understanding, without basing it on proper understanding of the linguistic or shar‘i guidelines, in which case it is haraam for him to do that, because the one who interprets the meanings of the Qur’an is testifying that Allah meant such and such. This is a very serious matter, because Allah has forbidden us to say about Him that which we do not know.

“Say (O Muhammad blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): ‘(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawahish (great evil sins, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteous oppression, joining partners (in worship) with Allah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge’” [al-A‘raaf 7:33].

Any person who says about Allah that which he does not know about the meaning of His words or any of His rulings has made a serious error.”

Tafseer of the verse: [Fussilat 41:53]

Tafseer of the verse “We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their own selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Quran) is the truth” [Fussilat 41:53]

Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their own selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Quran) is the truth [Fussilat 41:53].

What the verse means is that this is a promise from Allah, may He be exalted, that He will show people His signs in different regions of the heavens and the earth and in their own selves so that it may become clear to them and they may understand that the Qur’an is the truth sent down by Allah.

The mufassireen (commentators) differed concerning the meaning of “the universe” in this verse , but the differences of opinion do not affect the meaning; rather the verse may be understood in all the ways that they suggested, so there is no contradiction between them.

Some of the commentators interpreted the word translated here as universe as referring to different regions of the heavens, some interpreted it as referring to different regions of the earth, and some interpreted it as referring to both, as referring to different regions of both the heavens and the earth.

Continue reading Tafseer of the verse: [Fussilat 41:53]

The names of the surahs are a matter of tawqeef

The scholars differed as to whether the names of all the surahs of the Qur’an are proven to be from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), or are some of them proven to be based on the ijtihaad of the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them)?

The majority of scholars are of the view that the names of all of the surahs of the Qur’an are proven to be from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and are the matter of Tawqeef [i.e., they can only be known through divine Revelation and sound texts of hadeeth, with no room for ijtihad].

Imam Ibn Jareer at-Tabari (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “The surahs of the Qur’an have names that were given to them by the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).” [Jaami‘ al-Bayaan (1/100)]

Az-Zarkashi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “We should discuss the issue of when a surah has more than one name: is this the matter of tawqeef, or does it have to do with the stories mentioned in the surah? If the latter is the case, then any smart man could derive from each surah many names based on its contents, and this is unlikely. [Al-Burhaan fi ‘Uloom al-Qur’an (1/270)]

As-Suyooti (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “It is proven that all the names of the surahs are the matter of tawqeef, based on hadiths and reports. Were it not that I fear it would take too long, I would have explained that.” [Al-Itqaan (1/148)]

Shaykh Sulaymaan al-Bujayrami (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “The names of the surahs are the matter of tawqeef and are narrated from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), because the names of the surahs, the order in which they appear, and the order of the verses – each of these three things is the matter of tawqeef and is narrated from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). Jibreel (peace be upon him) told him that this is how they were in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz.” [Tuhfat al-Habeeb ‘ala Sharh al-Khateeb (2/163)]

Importance of memorising Quran and methodology

For a student at Madeenah University, it is absolutely essential that they memorise the book of Allaah. Although it is not a requirement for entry, many of those who get accepted into the university have already memorised the Quran. For those who havn’t, the vast majority of senior students and graduates recommened for the new students to memorise the Quran in the first 2 years of the ma’had; before they enter one of the kuliyaat.

Below is one method given by Shaykh Abdul muhsin Qasim (hafidhullah) who is an imam of Masjid Nabawi and has the famous mutoon memorisation programme in the masjid for the students.

The following is one method to memorize The Qur’an, which particularly differ than the other methods, in term of the strength of memory, and the short time to memorize. We will explain this method by taking an example from a page of soorah Al Jumu’ah (The Congregation, Friday).

1. Read the first verse for 20 times.

يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ

2. Read the second verse for 20 times.

هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آَيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِنْ كَانُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ

3. Read the third verse for 20 times.

وَآَخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

4. Read the fourth verse for 20 times.

ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ

5. Read all of the four verses from the beginning until the end for 20 times, in order to strengthen the correlation between those verses.

6. Read the fifth verse for 20 times.

مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ حُمِّلُوا التَّوْرَاةَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَحْمِلُوهَا كَمَثَلِ الْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفَارًا بِئْسَ مَثَلُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآَيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

7. Read the sixth times for 20 times.

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ هَادُوا إِنْ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ لِلَّهِ مِنْ دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الْمَوْتَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

8. Read the seventh verse for 20 times.

وَلَا يَتَمَنَّوْنَهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ

9. Read the eighth verse for 20 times.

قُلْ إِنَّ الْمَوْتَ الَّذِي تَفِرُّونَ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مُلَاقِيكُمْ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

10. Read the fifth until the eighth verse for 20 times to strengthen the correlation between the verses.

11. Read the first verse until the eighth for 20 times to strengthen the memorization of this page.

Use this method in memorizing every page of The Qur’an. Do not try to memorize more then one-eighth length of juz (parts) each day, to make it easier to keep the memory.