Faculty of Shariah: Semester III

In the third semester of the faculty of Shariah in the Islamic University of Madeenah, we continue our studies of Bidayah al-Mujtahid in Fiqh and Rawdatul Naadhir in Usool al Fiqh. We pick up one extra subject this semester: Haadir al-Aalam al-Islaami (the current Islamic world)

We continue hadeeth studies but instead of “Saheeh Bukharee” from last semester, we are now studying “Saheeh Muslim”. We also continue Tafseer but now are studying the Tafseer of Surah al-Nisaa, the 4th chapter of the Quran. In Aqeedah: We are studying the Names and Attributes of Allaah and also various deviant groups in Aqeedah. These will be taught from Aqeedah al-Hamawiyyah and Aqeedah al-Tadrumiyyah. The rest of the subjects remain and we continue from the same books we studied from in the Semester I.

What follows is my timetable:

 

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Acts of Worship are Tawqeefi

“From examining the principles of sharee‘ah we know that the acts of worship that have been enjoined by Allah or that He loves cannot be proven except through sharee‘ah. With regard to customs, they are things that people are used to doing in their worldly affairs … The basic principle concerning them is that they are not forbidden; nothing of that is forbidden except what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden. That is because commands and prohibitions have to do with the religion of Allah, and acts of worship must necessarily be enjoined. If something is not proven to have been enjoined, then how can it be deemed an act of worship? With regard to customs, if there is no text to prove that a custom is forbidden, how can it be deemed to be forbidden?

Hence Ahmad and other scholars of hadeeth used to say: The basic principle with regard to acts of worship is tawqeef; no acts of worship are prescribed except that which has been prescribed by Allah, may He be exalted; if we do not adhere to this principle, we will be included among those referred to in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “Or have they partners with Allah (false gods), who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not allowed?” [ash-Shoora 42:21]. The basic principle with regard to customs is that they are permissible and none of them are forbidden except that which Allah has forbidden. If we do not adhere to this principle, we will be included among those referred to in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “Tell me, what provision Allah has sent down to you! And you have made of it lawful and unlawful” [Yoonus 10:59].

Hence Allah condemned the mushrikeen who introduced things into religion that Allah had not permitted and they forbade things that He had not forbidden. End quote.

– Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Tamiyah (Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 29/16-17)

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan said in Al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Fawzaan, 16/13

Acts of worship are tawqeefi (i.e., acts of worship are to be based solely on Qur’aan and saheeh Sunnah, with no room for personal opinion); it is not permissible to do any act of worship in terms of time or place or type of worship except on the basis of tawqeef and instructions from the Lawgiver. As for the one who introduces something that was not enjoined by the Lawgiver of acts of worship or in terms of their place, time or description, then it is an innovation (bid ah).

The Excellence of Scholars

Ibn al-Qayyim says in Adapted from Miftah Daris Sa’adah:

Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, says in the Noble Qur’an:-

“Allah bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped but He, and the angels, and those having knowledge (Ulul-‘Ilm) (also bear witness to this); (He is always) maintaining His creation in justice. None has the right to be worshipped but He, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” [Al-Qur’an 3:18]

This verse shows the superiority of knowledge (‘ilm) and its people; the following points can be inferred from this verse:

1. Allah chose the people of knowledge (Ulul-‘Ilm) to bear witness to His Oneness (tawhid) over and above the rest of His creation;

2. Allah honored the people of knowledge by mentioning their testimony along with His testimony;

3. He raised high the status of the scholars by associating their testimony with the testimony of the angels;

4. This verse bears witness to the superiority of those who possess knowledge. Allah does not make any of His creation bear witness except the upright amongst them. There is a well known narration from the Prophet, peace be upon him, who said, “The upright in every generation will carry this knowledge, rejecting the distortions of the extremists, the false claims of the liars, and the (false) interpretations of the ignorant” (Declared hasan by Shaykh Salim al-Hilali);

5. Allah, the One free from all defects, Himself bears witness to His Oneness, and He is the greatest of all witnesses. Then He chose from His creation the angels and the scholars – this is sufficient to show their excellence;

6. Allah made the scholars bear witness with the greatest and most excellent testimony that is, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.” Allah, the One free of all defects and the Most High, does not bear witness except to matters of great importance and only the greatest from Allah’s creation bear witness to this;

7. Allah made the testimony of the people of knowledge a proof against the rejecters. Thus they are its proofs and its signs, indicating His Oneness (tawhid);

8. Allah, the Most High, used a single verb (shahid) to refer to His testimony and the testimony of the angels and the scholars. He did not use an additional verb for their testimony; thus He connected their testimony to His. This shows the strong link between their testimony and Allah’s testimony, as if He Himself bore witness to His Oneness upon their tongues and made them utter this testimony; and

9. Allah, the One free from all defects, made the scholars fulfill His right (that none has the right to be worshipped but Him) through this testimony and if they fulfill it then they have fulfilled and established this right of Allah upon them. Then it is obligatory upon mankind to accept this testimony which is the means to reach happiness in this life and their final return (to Allah). Whosoever takes this guidance from the scholars and accepts this truth because of their testimony, then for the scholars there is a reward equal to them. And none knows the value of this reward but Allah.

 

Aqeedah al-Tahawiyyah | العقيدة الطحاوية

al-‘Aqeedah al-Tahhaawiyyah is a book dealing with ‘aqeedah (basic tenets of faith) which was written by Imam al-Tahhaawi and named after him.

The author is the imam, muhaddith and faqeeh Abu Ja’far Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Salaamah al-Tahhaawi – who is named after a village in Upper Egypt – he studied with many Shaykhs and learned from them and benefited from them, and he listed their number as three hundred Shaykhs.

Al-Dhahabi said about him: “the faqeeh, muhaddith, haafiz, one of the prominent scholars, and he was trustworthy, sincere, a faqeeh and a man of wisdom.”

This ‘Aqeedah which was written by al-Tahhaawi mentions a number of the beliefs of the righteous salaf and those who followed them of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah, which was approved by the imams of the Hanafis – as al-Tahhaawi followed the madhhab of Abu Haneefah. He explained in his introduction his aims in doing that, and said:

“This is an explanation of the ‘aqeedah of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah according to the view of the fuqaha’ of this madhhab: Abu Haneefah al-Nu’maan ibn Thaabit al-Kufi, Abu Yoosuf Ya’qoob ibn Ibraaheem al-Ansaari, and Abu ‘Abd-Allaah Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybaani, may Allaah be pleased with them all, and the beliefs concerning the fundamentals of Islam, on the basis of which they submit to the Lord of the Worlds.” End quote.

Then he mentioned these basic beliefs, and the total number of things he mentioned was 105 things believed by Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah in general.

It is a book of ‘aqeedah that is easy to read and clear in meaning. It is comprehensive and brief. It sums up the beliefs of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah and, for the most part, includes matters on which there is scholarly consensus and agreement.

Many scholars have written commentaries on this ‘Aqeedah and explained its words and meanings. One of the most famous of them is Ibn Abi’l-‘Izz al-Hanafi, who wrote a lengthy commentary on it; among later scholars, Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz and Shaykh Muhammad Naasir al-Deen al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on them) wrote commentaries on it

Alhamdulilah I was able to study this book with both Shaykh Abdur Razzaq al-Badr and Shaykh Yusuf Ghafees (may Allaah preserve them both) in Masjid al-Nabawi, Madeenah.

Islam 103 Dawrah | 7th – 17th Aug 2017

*Islam 103 Dawrah* – in association with Dhikrullah.com and Masjid al-Humera

After the success of the Islam 101 Dawrah in 2015 and the Islam 102 Dawrah in 2016, we are pleased to announce the Islam 103 Dawrah. The *Islam 103 Dawrah* is a unique 10-day intensive knowledge programme organised by students from the Islamic University of Madeenah; for both male and female students of all levels.

Inspired by the world renowned intensive courses currently held in the Prophet’s ﷺ Masjid, Madeenah. Register now for an amazing opportunity to learn Usool al-Fiqh, Tafseer, Aqeedah, Hadeeth and more.

The Prophet ﷺ said: “Whoever treads a path of knowledge, Allaah makes easy for him the path to paradise” (Muslim)

Some of the feedback we recieved from last year’s Islam 102 Dawrah:

Anonymous sister: “I truly benefited from this dawrah alhamdulilah. JazakAllaahu khayran for making these 10 days so amazing!

Anonymous brother: “Extremely beneficial. I’ve learnt a lot of knowledge which has benefitted my emaan tremendously.”

Date: 7th Aug – 17th August 2017
Time: Everyday 2pm – 5pm (except Friday 11th August)
Location: Masjid al-Humera, 183 Green Street, London, E7 8LL

For more information and to register, visit: http://www.dhikrullah.com

Come and join us in the company of Angels and continue your good deeds after Ramadan!

Halfway through Ramadaan 1438H/2017

So we are just over halfway through the blessed month of Ramadan 1438H. Did you know there are 696 or 720 hours in Ramadaan but it will only take you only 15 hours to read the entire Quran once? So if we haven’t read the Quran cover to cover or at least not on track, then what is our excuse?

But don’t get all depressed now, there is still time. Ramadaan is not a race, it is a marathon. If you haven’t done well until now, now is the time to improve and become a winner.

Ibn al-Jawzi (rh) said: “When the race horse knows that it is nearing the end of the track it exerts all of its effort to win the race. Do not allow the race horse to be more clever than you. For verily, deeds are judged by their conclusions. So if you didn’t do well with welcoming Ramadan then perhaps you will do better bidding it farewell.”

p.s this video is from taraweeh this Ramadaan at the brand new masjid next to Mount Uhud in the blessed city of Madeenah. It’s been under construction since before I arrived here so it’s nice to see it finally complete. One of the imams for the taraweeh is one of the sons of the late Shaykh, Muhammed al-Ayyub (rahimahullah)

Fasting and Excuses

Some fatawaa’ in regards to fasting and breaking it with an excuse. Answered by the Allaamah, Shaykh Muhammed bin Salih al-Uthaymeen

Q. If a person breaks his fast due to some excuse, and then the excuse is removed during the day, should he fast for the remainder of the day?

A. He is not obliged to fast. This is because it has been made lawful for this man to break his fast on this day based upon an evidence from the Islamic Law. The Islamic Law allows one who is compelled to take medication for example, to take it, but if he takes, he breaks his fast. Therefore the prohibition of the day does not apply to him, because it has been permitted for him to break his fast, but he is required to compensate for it, and for us to require him to fast without any benefit is legally incorrect. So as long as this man does not benefit from fasting, it is not incumbent upon him.

An example of this would be a man who sees someone drowning in the water and he says: If I drank, it would be possible for me to save him, and if I did not drink, it would not be possible for me to save him, so he drinks and then saves him and he eats and drinks for the remainder of the day. This man is not prohibited from eating and drinking on this day, since it has been made lawful for him not to fast in accordance with the Islamic Law. Therefore, he is not required to fast.

For this reason, if there was a sick person, would we say to him: Do not eat unless you are hungry and do not drink unless you are thirsty? Meaning: Do not eat or drink except due to necessity. We would not say this to him, because it is permissible for the sick person to break his fast.

So, every person who breaks his fast in Ramadan in accordance with some legal evidence is not obliged to fast, and vice versa.

Whoever breaks his fast without an excuse, then he must fast, because it is not lawful for him to break his fast and he has transgressed the prohibition of that day without permission from the Islamic Law. So, we must compel him to fast the remainder of the day and to make up for it.

And Allah knows better.

Q. What are the permissible excuses for breaking the fast?

A. The permissible excuses for breaking the fast are: Illness and travel, as mentioned in the Qur’an.

Among other excuses is that a woman is pregnant and she fears for herself or her child. Another excuse is that a woman is breast-feeding and she fears for herself or her breast-fed child if she fasts.

Another excuse is that a person needs to break his fast in order to save the life of someone. For example, he finds a drowning person in the sea, or someone who is surrounded on all sides by fire, and he needs to break his fast in order to save him – in that case, he may break his fast and save him.

Another such case would be if a person needed to break his fast in order to strengthen himself for Jihad in Allah’s Cause, that would also be a permissible cause for him to break his fast, because the Prophet i| said to his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them:

“You will meet the enemy tomorrow morning, so breaking the fast stronger for you, so break your fast.” [1]

So, if there is a permissible excuse for breaking the fast, and a person breaks his fast due to it, it is not necessary for him to fast for the remainder of that day. Therefore, if it transpired that a person had broken his fast in order to save a person’s life, he should continue to eat and drink, even after saving him. This is because he broke his fast for a reason which permits him to break his fast, so it is not necessary for him to fast in that case, because the prohibition of breaking fast on that day has been removed due to the permissible cause for breaking the fast.

For this reason, we support the most authoritative opinion in this matter, which is that if a sick person became well during the day and he was not fasting, it is not necessary for him to fast, and if a traveller arrived during the day at his hometown and he was not fasting, it is not necessary for him to fast, and if a menstruating woman became clean during the day, it is not necessary for her to fast. This is because all of these people broke their fasts for legitimate reasons, and so on that day, there was no obligation upon them to fast, due to the lawful permission for breaking it at that time, so it is not necessary for them to fast.

This is as opposed to the case where it is confirmed that the month of Ramadan has begun during the day in that case, it is necessary to fast. The difference between the two cases is clear, because if the evidence appears (that Ramadan has begun) during the day, it has been confirmed that fasting on that day is obligatory for them, but they are excused for the time before the evidence became clear to them due to their ignorance of it. This is why, if they knew that this day was a day of Ramadan, it is obligatory for them to fast. But as for those other people whom we have described, it is permissible for them to break their fast, even though they are aware (that it is Ramadan) and the difference between them is clear.

[1] Reported by Muslim in the Book of Fasting, in the Chapter: The Reward of One Who Breaks His Fast on a Journey if He Undertakes a Task (1120).

Source: Fataawa Arkaan al-Islam by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy o­n him)

Taqreeb Mustalah al-Hadeeth | تقريب مصطلح الحديث

A contemporary book on Mustalah hadeeth (science of hadeeth). This is the book we studied in the second semester of Kuliyyah al-Shariah for the subject of mustalah hadeeth. It is a book written on the sciences of hadeeth and covers all the main anwaa3 (types) and mustalahaat (terminologies) or the different classifications with hadeeth.

It is written by الشيخ عبدالله الجربوعي, the book begins with the manners of the seeker of knowledge and also an introduction to the science of hadeeth.

Learning manners before knowledge

This simple piece of advice really amazed me. Recently in a class with our Shaykh, Shaykh Sulayman al-Ruhaylee in Masjid al-Nabawi, the Shaykh was asked a question regarding wudoo. The questioner asked something along the lines of: “My mother is ill and finds it difficult to perform wudoo..” until the end of the question regarding taharah.

The shaykh paused for a bit and before he answered the actual question relating to wudoo’ he said: When talking about your parents and their illness’, you should always ask Allaah to cure them like saying: “My mother (shafahullah – may Allaah cure her) is ill and finds it hard to perform wudoo..” or something similar to that. Even if you are simply asking a question.

I was really impressed with the way the shaykh dealt with the question by giving Naseehah to the questioner before eventually answering the mas’alah. It just goes to show the importance of actually sitting at the feet of scholars – not just to learn knowledge from them but to also learn manners.

Mālik ibn Anas, (rh) said, “Learn good manners before seeking knowledge.

‎وقال مالك بن أنس رحمه الله تَعَلَّمِ الأَدَبَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَتَعَلَّمَ الْعِلْمَ